Today I would like to share with you an useful way to troubleshoot errors in your SharePoint site when some unexpected error occurs.
You will need two things: the Correlation Id and access to Powershell or SharePoint Management Shell on the server. Once you got these two things, just paste the code below replacing the CorrelationId parameter with your Id.

This example is extremely simple, but saved my life a thousand times. The Get-SPLogEvent accepts other parameters too like Start and End Time too, that will help you on filtering better. Here is how the Log will be formatted in the text file.

References:
Zimmergren
Technet